horse chestnut seed extract

Horse Chestnut Seed Extract Benefits, Side Effects & Dosage

Horse chestnut seed extract is derived from the horse chestnut tree; this powerful herbal extract has been studied extensively over the last few decades and has been found to have significant potential benefits. In this article, we will look at what horse chestnut seed extract can do for you - our focus will include horse chestnut seed extract benefits, potential side effects, and recommended dosage guidelines.

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What Is Horse Chestnut Extract?

What Is a Horse Chestnut?

Horse Chestnut, scientifically known as Aesculus Hippocastanum, is native to parts of southeastern Europe but has since been grown in various parts of the world. The tree is renowned for its showy flowers and unique conker, a spiky fruit that encases the horse chestnut seed. 

Nowadays, it can be found growing in various areas around the world. While the seeds of horse chestnuts resemble sweet chestnuts in appearance, they have a bitter taste.

Common names:

  • Horse chestnut
  • Chestnut
  • Marron European 
  • Escine
  • Escin
  • Aescin
  • Buckeye
  • Spanish chestnut

Horse Chestnut Seed Resemble Sweet Chestnuts In Appearance But Bitter

What Is Horse Chestnut Seed Extract?

Horse chestnut seed extract is derived from the seeds of the horse chestnut tree. The extract contains a compound called escin, which has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

It is not advisable to consume horse chestnut leaves and seeds directly in their raw form due to their toxicity. However, extracts derived from horse chestnut seeds are non-toxic and have a historical use in herbal medicine. 

Historically, Horse Chestnut extract has a long-standing use dating back centuries. Its use was widespread among Native Americans and European folk medicine. 

They harnessed its beneficial properties to address health concerns such as leg pain, varicose veins, and digestive issues because it contains a compound called aescin, which has anti-inflammatory and Vaso protective effects. Today, its therapeutic benefits continue to be recognized and utilized in modern herbal medicine.

Research has also found potential benefits for other conditions, including hemorrhoids and post-surgery edema. As with any supplement, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before use.

Summary: Horse chestnut extract is made from the seeds of the horse chestnut tree and contains a compound named escin with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Consuming the raw leaves and seeds can be toxic, but extracts are safely used in herbal medicine. Historically, it was used to treat leg pain, varicose veins, and digestive issues, and research today reveals its potential in treating hemorrhoids and post-surgery edema.

Exploring Horse Chestnut Compound and Mechanism of Action

The Primary Active Compound In Horse Chestnut Seed Extract Aescin (Escin)

The primary active ingredient in Horse Chestnut extract is aescin, otherwise known as escin, accounting for over 30% of the seed's composition [3]. Scientists have identified and researched various components within the extract, but it is the escin that has demonstrated the most benefit. 

Escin works by inhibiting an enzyme known as hyaluronidase to reduce edema and inflammation [3]. It also appears to be a vaso-relaxant, which helps to improve circulation. Aescin can help reduce symptoms of varicose veins, leg swelling and pain, hemorrhoids, joint soreness, and edema [3].

Besides, horse chestnut seeds are known for their potent antioxidant activity, attributed to the presence of flavonoids [1]. These seeds contain glycosides and acylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol [1], which play a crucial role in their antioxidant capabilities.

While horse chestnut seeds have a high polyphenolic content, their antioxidant capability is limited [1]. However, the aglycone forms of glycosides, quercetin, and kaempferol in the dehusked seed extract are primarily responsible for the observed antioxidant activity [2]. It is worth noting that the presence of tannins, derivatives of bitter and toxic phenolic compounds, is also noteworthy in these seeds.

In addition, it has antioxidant properties that can fight free radical damage and protect the body from oxidative stress.

Benefits Of Horse Chestnut Seed Extract

May Alleviate Chronic Venous Insufficiency Symptoms

There are numerous studies on the benefits of "Horse Chestnut seed extract for Chronic Venous Insufficiency" (CVI) symptoms.

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a medical condition in which the veins are unable to efficiently return blood from the legs back to the heart. This causes symptoms such as leg swelling, pain, varicose veins, and ulcers [3]. Studies have found that horse chestnut seed extract can reduce swelling and improve walking distance in people with CVI [3] [4].

A study by Max H. Pittler and colleagues [4] on Horse Chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency concluded that there was an improvement in the signs and symptoms associated with CVI when using HCSE. Six out of seven individuals reported a significant reduction in leg pain in the HCSE group compared to the placebo group.

Another study by Bertram Ottillinger and colleagues [5] on the rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency discussed the potential of HCSE as a suitable and protective therapy in the early stages of CVI. However, for more advanced stages, compression therapy is recommended.

May Be Effective On Varicose Veins

Horse Chestnut Seed Extract Is Famous For Its Varicose Veins Benefits

A study [6] found the effectiveness of horse chestnuts in inhibiting the formation of varicose veins by reducing the process of capillary filtration, thus improving symptoms related to underlying edema in venous diseases of the leg [6].

Leg volume also significantly decreased in the group of individuals with varicose vein symptoms who used HCSE in the study [3], while the placebo group showed only slight, if any, reduction.

Another study [7] in the Cleveland Clinic Journal suggested horse chestnut as the first-line drug therapy to minimize varicose vein symptoms. The article states that horse chestnut extract decreases edema by increasing venous tone and venous flow.

Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Characteristics

As previously mentioned, aescin plays a central role in the activities of horse chestnut extract, with one of its significant effects being its anti-inflammatory properties. The complete extract has been found to be 100 times more effective in terms of anti-inflammatory activity compared to the extract without aescin [3]. 

The mechanism of action involves countering the reduction in ATP and increasing the activity of phospholipase A2, which is responsible for the release of intermediaries that cause inflammation [3]. 

Additionally, a separate study concluded that escin, by inhibiting inflammatory mediators, exhibits specific anti-inflammatory properties that reduce vascular permeability in inflamed tissues, thereby inhibiting the formation of edema. It also shows potential antioxidant effects [8].

May Relieve Hemorrhoids

Horse chestnut seeds have not only been historically used to support the reduction of hemorrhoidal disease and fever effects but have also been widely researched and utilized in modern medicine.

A study [9] emphasized that horse chestnut extract possesses antiseptic, venotonic, vascular protective, and anti-inflammatory properties due to its aescin content, which has emerged as a crucial agent that can favorably contribute to the treatment of all stages of hemorrhoids.

Another study focusing on plant-based treatments for hemorrhoids [10] lists horse chestnut extract as the first to discuss its efficacy for hemorrhoids. 

The study also mentions that herbalist Michael Moore considers horse chestnut a popular treatment for hemorrhoids, especially among physically active individuals. He also notes that combining horse chestnut extract with an increased intake of flavonoids in the diet is particularly beneficial in this case.

The study [10] also suggests several other plant types, such as butcher's broom, stone root, witch hazel, arnica, oak, chamomile, gotu kola, calendula, and psyllium.

Thanks to its effective properties, horse chestnut extract is approved by the German Commission E for prescription in cases of CVI and hemorrhoids [11].

[11] The inhibitory effects on the activities of enzymes elastase and hyaluronidase... make HCSE an ideal option for hemorrhoids treatment.

Offers Antioxidant Properties

In addition to its supportive properties for treating hemorrhoids and CVI, recent research is also focusing on the antioxidant properties of horse chestnut.

A study conducted on male mice demonstrated the protective effects against oxidative stress in mice consuming standard food containing aescin from horse chestnut seed extract [9].

Monika Stojanova and colleagues evaluated the effectiveness of water and ethanolic extracts of horse chestnut seeds and leaves in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities [12]. 

The study found that the ethanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to the water extract, suggesting that horse chestnut could be a new player in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, with the potential to replace synthetic additives.

Another study in Japan [13] assessed the content and distribution of antioxidant compounds in horse chestnut seeds, husks, and dehusked seeds. The study concluded that horse chestnut husks exhibited the highest antioxidant activity due to the presence of high molecular weight proanthocyanidins, whereas dehusked seeds primarily contained flavonols like quercetin and kaempferol at 66.7% polyphenol content, contributing to their antioxidant activity.

Horse Chestnut Seed Ethanolic Extract Exhibited Higher Antioxidant Activity

May Have Potential Advantages for Addressing Male Infertility

The study "Male Infertility: Lifestyle Factors and Holistic, Complementary, and Alternative Therapies" refers to a research conducted on 219 men with varicocele-associated infertility. These men participated in a 2-month-long treatment using horse chestnut seed extract, specifically aescin. 

The study observed a positive impact on sperm concentration among the group using aescin [14]. While no studies have contradicted this effect, further comprehensive research is necessary to ensure the authenticity and safety of horse chestnut's impact on male fertility. 

Besides, there has been considerable interest in exploring the potential benefits of horse chestnut extract for addressing erectile dysfunction (ED).

While horse chestnut extract may have some impact on male infertility, there is currently no specific evidence or mention of its efficacy in treating ED. Consequently, it is plausible that horse chestnut extract has limited to no influence on ED.

Hypoglycemic Effects

Escins derived from horse chestnut extract have been found to possess inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption and demonstrate hypoglycemic activity in a glucose tolerance test conducted within the intestinal tube [15].

A study investigating the hypoglycemic potential of β Escin in diabetic mice concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of B escin is dependent on the dosage used. In the group of mice administered 300 mg/kg, a 23.3% reduction was observed, while the group using 500 mg/kg experienced a significant reduction of 52.6% after 3 days [16].

Additionally, another study examining the Hypoglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Triterpene Glycoside Fractions from Aesculus Hippocastanum Seeds demonstrated that the combined use of escins yielded effective hypoglycemic results [16]. However, the study also suggests the necessity for further extensive research to validate these properties and effects.

May Be Beneficial For Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

While research on the effects of horse chestnut extract on Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is somewhat limited, some studies suggest that it may offer potential benefits. 

A systematic review evaluating the efficacy of Western herbal medicines in the treatment of IBS highlights Aesculus Hippocastanum, commonly known as horse chestnut, as an effective herbal remedy for this condition [17]. 

However, more extensive research is necessary to fully understand and validate the therapeutic potential of horse chestnut extract in managing IBS symptoms.

People With Irritable Bowel Syndrome Benefit From Horse Chestnut Seed Extract

Other Horse Chestnut Extract Benefits

Apart from its effects on hemorrhoids, CVI, male infertility, hypoglycemia, and IBS, horse chestnut extract has been used for centuries to treat a host of other conditions. 

It is popularly known as an effective remedy for treating bruises, edema caused by venous insufficiency or congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), varicose veins, as well as pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal disorders [18]. 

Other traditional applications of horse chestnut extract include treating wounds, sinusitis, and even improving digestion. Horse chestnut has also been used in folk medicine to treat a plethora of conditions, such as gout, headaches, diarrhea, menstrual cramps, and kidney stones. However, these applications require further validation through clinical studies in order to be considered as effective treatments for these conditions. 

Finally, horse chestnut extract is showing promise as a potential treatment for skin aging due to its antioxidant properties. In one study [19], authors noted that the water extract from horse chestnut seed was able to protect human skin fibroblasts from oxidative stress and aging. However, further research is needed before horse chestnut can be considered an effective method for protecting skin against aging. 

Summary:

  • Hemorrhoids and CVI Treatment: Horse chestnut extract is particularly beneficial for hemorrhoids and Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI).
  • Antioxidant Properties: Horse chestnuts exhibit significant antioxidant properties. Various types of extracts have demonstrated their effectiveness against oxidative stress.
  • Potential Male Infertility Treatment: Aescin, derived from horse chestnut extract, may have positive effects on male fertility, specifically in cases of varicocele-associated infertility.
  • Hypoglycemic Effects: Several studies suggest that Escins from horse chestnut have hypoglycemic activity and could potentially manage diabetes.
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Treatment: Some studies propose horse chestnut extract as a potential remedy for IBS, although further research is required.
  • Other Benefits: Other traditional uses of horse chestnut extract include treating edema, varicose veins, bruises, pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal disorders, and more. Finally, it is also being explored for its potential anti-aging properties for skin.

Horse Chestnut Extract Side Effects

In addition to horse chestnut seed extract benefits, it can have significant side effects, especially in children and pregnant women. 

As mentioned earlier, horse chestnut leaves and bark contain toxins, and even though the seeds are processed for use, they still contain toxins that require special preparation to remove [18]. 

Some observed symptoms include diarrhea, visual and consciousness disturbances, dilated pupils, facial redness, and severe thirst. These symptoms were experienced by a child who ingested 5 horse chestnut seeds [18].

An observational study of over 5,000 subjects showed an adverse event rate of 0.6% when using horse chestnut extract. Common symptoms reported were headaches, nausea, and itching [19]. Furthermore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies horse chestnut as a toxic herb [18].

There have been reports of liver damage in a 37-year-old male due to venoplant, which contains horse chestnut extract. Shock reactions, poisoning, and kidney failure have also been documented when injecting horse chestnut extract into the veins. Various studies have listed other side effects such as paralysis, coma, depression, and even fatalities.

Pregnant or breastfeeding women avoid using horse chestnut extract due to limited information on its toxicity.

Drug Interactions

In addition to the aforementioned side effects, when using horse chestnut extract, it's important to be aware of potential drug interactions:

  • Anticoagulants [19]
  • Protein-binding drugs [19]
  • Hypoglycemic agents [19]

These interactions can have significant implications for individuals taking medications in these categories. It's crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before using horse chestnut extract if you are on any of these medications to ensure your safety and well-being.

Summary:

Horse chestnut extract may cause side effects including diarrhea, visual disturbances, severe thirst, and in severe cases, liver damage, kidney failure, and even fatalities. It's classified as a toxic herb by the FDA and its usage is discouraged in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to potential toxicity. Furthermore, horse chestnut extract can interact with anticoagulants, protein-binding drugs, and hypoglycemic agents. Therefore, it's imperative to consult a healthcare professional before using this extract, especially if you are on any of these medications.

Horse Chestnut Extract Dosage And Instruction For Use

How Much Should You Take Horse Chestnut Extract Ali Per Day?

Horse chestnut extract can be used in several ways, including oral consumption, topical application, and intravenous injection. Here are the recommended dosages for adults of each method:

  • Oral Use: In horse chestnut extract products with 16-20% triterpene glycosides, the dosage is typically calculated based on the escin content to ensure safety. Studies suggest taking approximately 50-75 mg of escin (300-600 mg horse chestnut extract) every 12 hours for optimal effectiveness.
  • Topical Application: For topical use, apply a 2% escin gel 3-4 times a day.
  • Intravenous: It's important to note that there is limited reliable research on the intravenous use of horse chestnut. Therefore, caution should be exercised when using this method to administer the extract.

Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or supplement regimen. They can provide guidance on the appropriate dosages to ensure the safe and effective use of horse chestnut extract.

Who Is Suitable For Horse Chestnut Extract?

Horse chestnut extract is suitable for adults looking to manage a variety of health conditions. It is particularly beneficial for those suffering from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and edema linked to venous insufficiency or congestive heart failure (CHF). 

Additionally, individuals experiencing muscle and joint pain, inflammation, and even certain digestive disorders might find relief by using this extract. 

Who Should Not Take Horse Chestnut Extract?

Horse chestnut extract is not suitable for children and pregnant or breastfeeding women due to potential toxicity and lack of relevant studies. 

It's also crucial for those on anticoagulants, protein-binding drugs, or hypoglycemic agents to consult with a healthcare professional before considering the use of horse chestnut extract.

Summary:

Horse chestnut extract is typically recommended for adults suffering from conditions like chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins, among others. The dosage varies based on the delivery method: oral consumption typically requires 50-75 mg of escin (300-600mg of horse chestnut extract) every 12 hours, while topical applications of a 2% escin gel can be used 3-4 times daily. However, the extract is not recommended for children, pregnant or breastfeeding women, or those on certain medications due to potential toxicity and drug interactions.

Should You Use Horse Chestnut Seed Extract?

Horse chestnut extract is a powerful natural remedy that has been used for centuries to treat a wide range of health conditions. When used properly under the guidance of a healthcare professional, horse chestnut extract can be an effective method for managing chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and other related conditions. 

However, due to its potential toxicity, it is important to strictly adhere to the recommended dosages and consult with your doctor before starting any new supplement. Additionally, those on certain medications, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and children should avoid using horse chestnut extract entirely. 

Taking all of these factors into consideration, you can make an informed decision whether or not horse chestnut seed extract is suitable for you.

FAQs

What Is The Recommended Duration For Taking Horse Chestnut Extract?

The recommended duration for taking Horse Chestnut extract, most common among adults, is between 8-12 weeks. The extract is typically consumed orally in doses ranging from 300-600 mg daily during this period.

How Soon Can One Expect To See Results From Using Horse Chestnuts?

Horse chestnut extract benefits can vary based on individual health conditions and response to treatment. Generally, you may begin to notice improvements in symptoms related to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) or other relevant conditions after several weeks of consistent use.

Are There Any Potential Kidney-Related Concerns Associated With Horse Chestnuts?

There are potential kidney-related concerns with horse chestnuts. There have been cases of kidney failure associated with the injection of horse chestnut extract. As such, it's crucial to use horse chestnut products under medical supervision.

Does Horse Chestnut Contribute To An Increase In Nitric Oxide Production?

Some research suggests that horse chestnuts can contribute to increased nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide is beneficial for vascular health as it helps expand blood vessels, improving blood flow. However, more extensive studies are needed to confirm this effect.

What Are The Benefits Of Horse Chestnuts For Hair?

Horse chestnut extract is rich in antioxidants, which can help nourish the scalp and promote healthy hair growth. It may also strengthen hair follicles and improve hair texture. However, more research is needed to substantiate these benefits.

Can You Take Horse Chestnuts Long Term?

Long-term use of horse chestnut extract should be done cautiously and under medical supervision due to potential toxicity concerns. It is generally recommended to use for 8-12 weeks.

When Is The Optimal Time Of Day To Consume Horse Chestnuts?

The optimal time to consume horse chestnut extract can vary based on individual factors and the specific health condition being addressed. However, as a general rule, it is often recommended to take it with meals to reduce the risk of stomach upset.

Conclusion

Horse chestnut seed extract has been studied for treating conditions like edema and varicose veins. It may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, along with other health benefits. While generally safe, side effects can occur. Consult your doctor before starting supplementation, including discussing dosage. To maximize benefits and minimize risks, seek guidance from an experienced professional.

References:

[1] Oszmiański, J., Kalisz, S., & Aneta Wojdyło. (2014). The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić). Molecules, 19(9), 14625–14636. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190914625
[2] Kimura, H., Ogawa, S., Ishihara, T., Maruoka Mahoko, Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Mitsuo Jisaka, & Yokota, K. (2017). Antioxidant activities and structural characterization of flavonol O -glycosides from seeds of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata BLUME). Food Chemistry, 228, 348–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.084
[3] Dudek-Makuch, M., & Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka. (2015). Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 25(5), 533–541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.05.009
[4] Pittler, M. H., & Ernst, E. (2012). Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. The Cochrane Library. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003230.pub4
[5] Ottillinger, B., & Greeske, K. (2001). Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-1-5
[6] Europe PMC. (2016). Europe PMC. Europepmc.org. https://europepmc.org/article/med/3527643
[7] Bartholomew, J. R., King, T., Sahgal, A., & Vidimos, A. T. (2005). Varicose veins: newer, better treatments available. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 72(4), 312–314. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.72.4.312
[8] Escin: a review of its anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, and venotonic properties. (2019). Drug Design, Development and Therapy. https://doi.org/10.2147//DDDT.S207720
[9] Ezberci, F., & Ünal, E. (2018). Aesculus Hippocastanum (Aescin, Horse Chestnut) in the Management of Hemorrhoidal Disease: Review. Turkish Journal of Colorectal Disease, 28(2), 54–57. https://doi.org/10.4274/tjcd.16442
[10] Botanical Treatments for Hemorrhoids | Alternative and Complementary Therapies. (2021). Alternative and Complementary Therapies. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2005.11.285
[11] Bharat Gami. (2014, June). Botanicals An Alternative Treatment Approach For Hemorrhoids – A Review. Researchgate; Unknown. Https://Www.Researchgate.Net/Publication/281165695_botanicals_an_alternative_treatment_approach_for_hemorrhoids_-_a_review?Enrichid=Rgreq-E43687c61a753f216a0b6a22a4e31ba7-Xxx&Enrichsource=Y292zxjqywdlozi4mte2nty5nttbuzoynju0nzq2otcwnjg1ndramtq0mdmwntuwodm2nw%3d%3d&El=1_x_3&_esc=Publicationcoverpdf
[12] Stojanova, M., D. Djukić, Stojanova, M., Aziz Şatana, & Blažo Lalević. (2022). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Wild Chestnut Ohrid Diamond Extract—An Opportunity for Creation of New Natural Products. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 65(1), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-022-00668-9
[13] Kimura, H., Ogawa, S., Ishihara, T., Maruoka Mahoko, Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Mitsuo Jisaka, & Yokota, K. (2017). Antioxidant activities and structural characterization of flavonol O -glycosides from seeds of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata BLUME). Food Chemistry, 228, 348–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.084
[14] Fang, Y., Zhao, L., Yan, F., Xia, X., Xu, D., & Cui, X. (2010). Escin improves sperm quality in male patients with varicocele-associated infertility. Phytomedicine, 17(3-4), 192–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.07.014
[15] Yoshikawa, M., Murakami, T., Matsuda, H., Johji Yamahara, Murakami, N., & Kitagawa, I. (1996). Bioactive Saponins and Glycosides. III. Horse Chestnut. (1): The Structures, Inhibitory Effects on Ethanol Absorption, and Hypoglycemic Activity of Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 44(8), 1454–1464. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.44.1454
[16] Avez Sharipov, Khurshid Tursunov, Sunnatullo Fazliev, Bahtigul Azimova, & Jamoliddin Razzokov. (2021). Hypoglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Triterpene Glycoside Fractions from Aeculus hippocastanum Seeds. Molecules, 26(13), 3784–3784. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133784
[17] Hawrelak, J., Wohlmuth, H., Pattinson, M., Myers, S. P., Goldenberg, J. Z., Harnett, J., Cooley, K., Van, C., Reid, R., & Whitten, D. (2020). Western herbal medicines in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 48, 102233–102233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102233
[18] Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak. (2019). Horse Chestnut. Elsevier EBooks, 295–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-812491-8.00042-4
[19] Horse Chestnut. (2023). Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/J157v02n01_10
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Author

Ralph S. Albert, with over 10 years of expertise in nutrition and research, now heads the Research division at Vinatura Supplements. His dedication and extensive knowledge ensure top-quality articles on nutrition and health, collaborating with a skilled team. He has successfully completed The VINATURA Expertise Research Training Program, underscoring his commitment to Vinatura's mission. Ralph has also published numerous articles and conducted valuable research in the field, making him a trusted resource for individuals on their wellness journey.

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